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Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is defined as the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. In general, it is the sale of goods to anyone other than a standard consumer. Business-to-business describes commerce transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. Contrasting terms are business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-government. The volume of B2B transactions is much higher than the volume of B2C transactions. The primary reason for this is that in a typical supply chain there will be many B2B transactions involving subcomponent or raw materials, and only one B2C transaction, specifically sale of the finished product to the end customer. For example, an automobile manufacturer makes several B2B transactions such as buying tires, glass for windscreens, and rubber hoses for its vehicles. The final transaction, a finished vehicle sold to the consumer, is a single B2C transaction. The distribution chain is intermediaries; each passing the product down the chain to the next organization, before it finally reaches the consumer or end-user. This process is as the 'distribution chain' or the 'channel.' Each of the elements in these chains will have their own specific needs, which the producer must take into account, along with those of the all-important end-user.

American Silver Eagle

The American Silver Eagle is the official silver bullion coin of the United States of America. The United States Mint first released it in November 1986. It struck only in the one-troy ounce size, which has a face value of 1 dollar and guaranteed to contain one troy ounce of 99.9% pure silver. The United States Mint certifies its content, purity, and weight. Silver Eagle bullion coins, along with American Gold Eagle bullion coins are viable investment alternatives to the gold and silver bullion coins produced by other countries. To ensure wide distribution of the coins, the United States Mint awarded a contract to Grey Advertising to assist in marketing and publicizing the coins domestically and internationally. The design on the coin's obverse taken from the "Walking Liberty" design by Adolph A. Weinman, which originally had been used on the Walking Liberty Half Dollar coin of the United States from 1916 to 1947. As this iconic design had been a public favorite—and indeed one of the most beloved designs of any United States coinage of modern times, silver or otherwise—it revived for the Silver Eagle decades later. The obverse inscribed with the year of minting or issuance, the word LIBERTY, and the phrase IN GOD WE TRUST. The reverse is by John Mercanti and portrays a heraldic eagle behind a shield; the eagle grasps an olive branch in its right talon and arrows in its left talon, echoing the Great Seal of the United States; above the eagle are thirteen five-pointed stars representing the Thirteen Colonies. The reverse inscribed with the phrases UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 1 OZ. FINE SILVER ONE DOLLAR, and E PLURIBUS UNUM as well as the applicable mintmark. Like the American Gold Eagle and American Platinum Eagle bullion coins, the United States Mint does not sell Silver Eagle bullion coins directly to the public. In order to provide "effective and efficient distribution, which maximizes the availability of the coins in retail markets as well as major investment markets" the Mint utilizes a network of authorized purchasers to distribute the coins. The coins sold in bulk at a premium over the spot price of silver. The coins sold to banks, brokerage companies, coin dealers, precious metal firms, and wholesalers that meet the following requirements. Be an experienced and established market maker in silver bullion coins. Provide a liquid two-way market for the coins. Be audited annually by an internationally accepted accounting firm. Have an established broad base of retail customers to which to distribute the coins. Have a tangible net worth of $5 million. Authorized purchasers must order a minimum of 25,000 coins, which they sell to secondary retailers that sell them, in turn, to the public.